The report presents the results from a qualitative research into household food waste in Hungary, Germany, Spain and The Netherlands. In each of the individual countries, six focus groups are conducted. This report presents the most striking similarities and differences between the countries and the analysis per country. It shows that awareness and motivation regarding food waste are present and on the rise in all countries but to different degrees and with different contingencies, depending on socio-cultural and socio-economic factors.
Different methods of assessing consumer in-home food waste are compared in this report: survey on food waste in general; survey on food waste in the past week; keeping a food waste diary; letting consumers photograph their food waste; letting consumers collect food waste in kitchen caddies. Results indicate which survey questions appear suitable to measure food waste in large surveys, and which can best be avoided. It also provides insights in new measurement methods for smaller samples.
This report presents an extensive inventory of existing tools which support businesses to prevent food waste along the whole supply chain. The core objective driving the creation of this inventory is to inform further REFRESH research, to understand current business needs, and use this information to identify potential gaps in this market.
Consumer food waste is not the consequence of discarding waste, but of the accumulation of behaviours performed earlier in time. This report describes and interlinks the behaviours leading to waste and the factors influencing them. This report has integrated prior research into one theoretical framework in which the focus lies on the motivation, the abilities and the opportunities of consumers to prevent food waste while managing their household.
Innovation is fundamental for preventing or reducing business food waste. REFRESH identifies the drivers of technological (process or product) and organizational innovation and their impact on waste. Economic gains (competitiveness and productivity) and territorial specificities are the main drivers of adoption..
Firms’ adoption of innovations for addressing food waste is a complex phenomenon, as it may be driven also by non-economic factors. REFRESH has identified the behavioural typologies that influence adoption
Quantifying and understanding inconsistency in the generation of consumer food waste is particularly important, to target intervention strategies where they are most efficient. This report analyses two of the largest available datasets to define consumer behavioural typologies and develop a systems map to illustrate potential links between consumer behaviour and the creation/reduction of food waste.
The REFRESH project has evaluated the key EU waste streams having significant environmental impact. Over 290 waste streams were identified, scored and reviewed to produce a list of priority waste streams for further study. The list includes brewers’ spent grains, oil press cake and meat & dairy side-streams such as slaughter by-products and whey, as well as apple pomace, orange peel and tomato pomace.
Industry-led voluntary (Framework) Agreements can be an alternative way of effecting change, without the need for legislative action. This report explores each stage of establishing a Framework Agreement, drawing on the experience of similar alliances to provide a greater understanding of the prime conditions to both establish and manage a Framework for Action.
REFRESH has the objective to bring together different stakeholders from all stages of the production and supply chain and to lead them closer towards the goal of reducing food waste and loss. This will be implemented through effective measures, especially those that do not stem from legal necessities. The Framework for Action guides cooperation within the German Business Engagement Steering Committee (German National Platform).
Evaluating the life cycle costs (LCC) of food waste is a challenging task and few examples of previous LCC exist. This REFRESH report reviewed existing measures and methods for the evaluation of LCC of food waste. It conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify major methodological challenges related to cost modelling and externalities. The report contributes to the development of recommendations for a standardized system approach.
The aim of this report is to review methodologies for evaluating the environmental sustainability dimension of food waste. Results from the review were analysed, paying special attention on several methodological aspects: functional unit, system boundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation, environmental impact categories, end-of-life, land use change, ecosystem services.