The REFRESH project has evaluated the key EU waste streams having significant environmental impact. Over 290 waste streams were identified, scored and reviewed to produce a list of priority waste streams for further study. The list includes brewers’ spent grains, oil press cake and meat & dairy side-streams such as slaughter by-products and whey, as well as apple pomace, orange peel and tomato pomace.

Decision Support System
A web app to help food businesses determine whether their surplus food is suitable for animal feed and navigate the relevant legislation

The United Nations estimates that if farmers around the world fed their livestock on the food that we currently waste and on agricultural by-products, enough grain would be liberated to feed an extra three billion people. To help food businesses contribute to such a grand waste-free future, REFRESH is building a web app for businesses to clarify which surplus food is suitable, and what needs to be done to send the food to animal feed in a safe and legal way.

Determine context and success factors of voluntary alliances

Industry-led voluntary (Framework) Agreements can be an alternative way of effecting change, without the need for legislative action. This report explores each stage of establishing a Framework Agreement, drawing on the experience of similar alliances to provide a greater understanding of the prime conditions to both establish and manage a Framework for Action.

Framework for Action

REFRESH has the objective to bring together different stakeholders from all stages of the production and supply chain and to lead them closer towards the goal of reducing food waste and loss. This will be implemented through effective measures, especially those that do not stem from legal necessities. The Framework for Action guides cooperation within the German Business Engagement Steering Committee (German National Platform).


Evaluating the life cycle costs (LCC) of food waste is a challenging task and few examples of previous LCC exist. This REFRESH report reviewed existing measures and methods for the evaluation of LCC of food waste. It conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify major methodological challenges related to cost modelling and externalities. The report contributes to the development of recommendations for a standardized system approach.


The aim of this report is to review methodologies for evaluating the environmental sustainability dimension of food waste. Results from the review were analysed, paying special attention on several methodological aspects: functional unit, system boundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation, environmental impact categories, end-of-life, land use change, ecosystem services.