Framework for Action

REFRESH has the objective to bring together different stakeholders from all stages of the production and supply chain and to lead them closer towards the goal of reducing food waste and loss. This will be implemented through effective measures, especially those that do not stem from legal necessities. The Framework for Action guides cooperation within the German Business Engagement Steering Committee (German National Platform).


Evaluating the life cycle costs (LCC) of food waste is a challenging task and few examples of previous LCC exist. This REFRESH report reviewed existing measures and methods for the evaluation of LCC of food waste. It conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify major methodological challenges related to cost modelling and externalities. The report contributes to the development of recommendations for a standardized system approach.


The aim of this report is to review methodologies for evaluating the environmental sustainability dimension of food waste. Results from the review were analysed, paying special attention on several methodological aspects: functional unit, system boundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation, environmental impact categories, end-of-life, land use change, ecosystem services.