This report is part of the EU research project REFRESH, which aims to contribute to the goal of reducing food waste across Europe. The current report is output of the work package that focuses on consumer behaviours related to food waste. It aims to consolidate existing and new consumer understandings at the in-home level into a research framework and methodology that allows comparison across countries.
The generation of food waste stems from a complex set of interacting behaviours of both food consumers and suppliers. Therefore, a complete approach to the problem requires an analysis of both sources of waste. Both Agent Based Models and Bayesian Networks provide a modelling approach that fits this purpose, since they allow the study of complex systems. This report provides the methodological background needed in order to achieve the modelling objectives of WP4.
The Steering Committee of the „Food is Value”- Forum Against Food Loss and Waste has accepted its basic document. The Framework of Action document describes the main goals and priorities of the Forum, project targets and project measurement as well as the main principles of operational tasks of the platform bodies.
This report provides guidance on how to apply LCA and LCC for studies that specifically explore questions on handling side flows from the food supply chain. It is aimed at practitioners who have working knowledge of applying LCA and LCC in their field of expertise (e.g. food processing or waste handling) and policy makers that would like to get a deeper understanding on how to interpret and formulate an LCA and LCC based problem.
The report presents the results from a qualitative research into household food waste in Hungary, Germany, Spain and The Netherlands. In each of the individual countries, six focus groups are conducted. This report presents the most striking similarities and differences between the countries and the analysis per country. It shows that awareness and motivation regarding food waste are present and on the rise in all countries but to different degrees and with different contingencies, depending on socio-cultural and socio-economic factors.
Different methods of assessing consumer in-home food waste are compared in this report: survey on food waste in general; survey on food waste in the past week; keeping a food waste diary; letting consumers photograph their food waste; letting consumers collect food waste in kitchen caddies. Results indicate which survey questions appear suitable to measure food waste in large surveys, and which can best be avoided. It also provides insights in new measurement methods for smaller samples.
Common qualitative research protocol for application in other countries as part of the Community of Experts initiative of the REFRESH project.
This report presents an extensive inventory of existing tools which support businesses to prevent food waste along the whole supply chain. The core objective driving the creation of this inventory is to inform further REFRESH research, to understand current business needs, and use this information to identify potential gaps in this market.
Consumer food waste is not the consequence of discarding waste, but of the accumulation of behaviours performed earlier in time. This report describes and interlinks the behaviours leading to waste and the factors influencing them. This report has integrated prior research into one theoretical framework in which the focus lies on the motivation, the abilities and the opportunities of consumers to prevent food waste while managing their household.
Innovation is fundamental for preventing or reducing business food waste. REFRESH identifies the drivers of technological (process or product) and organizational innovation and their impact on waste. Economic gains (competitiveness and productivity) and territorial specificities are the main drivers of adoption..
Firms’ adoption of innovations for addressing food waste is a complex phenomenon, as it may be driven also by non-economic factors. REFRESH has identified the behavioural typologies that influence adoption
Quantifying and understanding inconsistency in the generation of consumer food waste is particularly important, to target intervention strategies where they are most efficient. This report analyses two of the largest available datasets to define consumer behavioural typologies and develop a systems map to illustrate potential links between consumer behaviour and the creation/reduction of food waste.
The REFRESH project has evaluated the key EU waste streams having significant environmental impact. Over 290 waste streams were identified, scored and reviewed to produce a list of priority waste streams for further study. The list includes brewers’ spent grains, oil press cake and meat & dairy side-streams such as slaughter by-products and whey, as well as apple pomace, orange peel and tomato pomace.
The United Nations estimates that if farmers around the world fed their livestock on the food that we currently waste and on agricultural by-products, enough grain would be liberated to feed an extra three billion people. To help food businesses contribute to such a grand waste-free future, REFRESH is building a web app for businesses to clarify which surplus food is suitable, and what needs to be done to send the food to animal feed in a safe and legal way.
Industry-led voluntary (Framework) Agreements can be an alternative way of effecting change, without the need for legislative action. This report explores each stage of establishing a Framework Agreement, drawing on the experience of similar alliances to provide a greater understanding of the prime conditions to both establish and manage a Framework for Action.
REFRESH has the objective to bring together different stakeholders from all stages of the production and supply chain and to lead them closer towards the goal of reducing food waste and loss. This will be implemented through effective measures, especially those that do not stem from legal necessities. The Framework for Action guides cooperation within the German Business Engagement Steering Committee (German National Platform).
Evaluating the life cycle costs (LCC) of food waste is a challenging task and few examples of previous LCC exist. This REFRESH report reviewed existing measures and methods for the evaluation of LCC of food waste. It conducted a comprehensive literature review to identify major methodological challenges related to cost modelling and externalities. The report contributes to the development of recommendations for a standardized system approach.
The aim of this report is to review methodologies for evaluating the environmental sustainability dimension of food waste. Results from the review were analysed, paying special attention on several methodological aspects: functional unit, system boundaries, cut-off criteria, allocation, environmental impact categories, end-of-life, land use change, ecosystem services.